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Research Proposal

In social media today, there are many people wanting to grab the attention of audiences far and wide. I have found that through research and really just a bit of soul searching that the best way to truly grab someone’s attention is through sexual content. After looking up many ACADEMIC sources i have found that porn and many other forms of sexual content are widely embedded into social media. Ever seen an ad for an online chat? There is more then 99% chance that a stunning girl or a good looking guy is the cover for that advirtisement. My proposal is this, I would like to see how sexual content is affecting media and society today through going through random interface related media  and talking to random audiences and surveying their opinions. It doesn’t even have to be through an online channel, I just thought it would be easier to use media in order to survey people about the things they normally don’t get asked. 

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The effects of the internet on this current era; a post-human society

Bibliography Introduction

Thesis: The effects of the internet on this current era; a post-human society

            Since its initial commercialization in 1995, the internet has become an ever expanding melting pot of information.  With the advent of the world-wide web, there has been a substantial increase in the accessbililty of the internet, allowing it to appeal to a globally diverse audience.  The internet has grown from being just a tool to an omniscient entity which governs its own domain, cyber space.  No technology today is invented without some incorporation of the internet and many would probably not consider it “technology” if it didn’t.  With the dynamic culture of the web, it has become open to interpretation by its users and especially within America, cannot be entirely moderated by authority.  The uses for the internet have evolved since its inception and despite its initial purpose for quality education and government participation; it has become an outlet for any industry or individual.  Many users happily indulge themselves in online fantasy gaming worlds (such as League of Legends, World of Warcraft) or spend time re-acquainting themselves with friends on social media (Facebook, Twitter, MySpace).  However, these actions don’t always elicit positive reception from society but rather the opposite.  These simple indulgences can become addictions for some users, ultimately being detrimental to their own health or those of others.  Another example is the web’s regular use for sexual exploitation; which has made it turn into a feeding ground for the adult entertainment industries and a vulnerable target for drug- or sex-trafficking activities.  Despite all these instances, the effects of the internet on this current era is of value to be studied and analyzed as the current transformation into a post-human society enabling us to reach a potential much greater than our ancestors.

Selections by Tatyana Brown

Topic: Examining the effects gaming and society.

“‘The Demise of Guys’: How Video Games and Porn Are Ruining a Generation.” CNN. Cable News Network, 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 23 Sept. 2012.

The article describes the bad effects of porn and gaming on the psychological development of men. The overuse of these two entities have been cited in many mainstream cases where either of the two have had detrimental effects on men. Porn and video games are associated with creating “a cycle of isolation” and even desensitizes men in reality and relationships. Violence in video games has been cited as a large cause of over-aggression in men who play explicit video games. This culture of gaming and self-stimulation are rewiring men’s brains on how to interact socially and can adversely affect their academic potential. The author calls out the need to stop this devolution of man and calls it a “national, and perhaps global, Guy Disaster Mode.” This article is interesting in how it argues certain social media affects men and women independently and that the health effects are detrimental only for men. Zimbardo, Dr. Philip G., The Opinions Expressed in This Commentary Are Solely Those of Dr. Philip G. Zimbardo, and Nikita Duncan.

Annotated by Johnny Truong

Miller, Monica K., and Alicia Summers. “Gender Differences in Video Game Characters’ Roles, Appearances, and Attire as Portrayed in Video Game Magazines.” Sex Roles 57.9-10 (2007): 733-42. Print.

According to the authors significant gender differences are portrayed in video games and have an adverse effect on the current generation. The author uses video game magazines and found that males played more lead roles and were more powerful than women. The article states “Females were more often supplemental characters, more attractive, sexy, and innocent, and also wore more revealing clothing”. This variance is significant and that because video games are the fastest growing media in the United States further stating “nearly 80% of children regularly play video or computer games.” This paper provides strong evidence for to support the relevance of analyzing the effect of video games on youth today. Statistical data is given to support practically every point made and therefore is excellent for citation.

Annotated by Ethan Dyer

Smith, Matt. “3 Ways Game Studios Still Reinforce Negative Body Images For Women [Opinion].” makeuseof. n.p., 10 Jan. 2012. Web. 22 Sept. 2012.

This source confronts the sexism portrayed in games. Women are often depicted in video games as having the “hourglass” body type. When it comes to elderly women, “this becomes particularly amusing…they retain their womanly curvature, as if frozen in time from the head down at age 22” (Smith). It addresses the misconception that most “gamers are young and male”; however, this is not the case. Surveys show “the average gamer is over 30, and women make up a large part of the gaming audience, ranging from about 25% to almost 40%” (Smith). Although there are quite a few female gamers, there are less than 12% working in the game development industry, which suggests that if there were more women working in the field, then the sexism may not be so prevalent.

Annotated by Hanna Basta

Brockway, Robert. “5 Bizarre Ways Video Games Are Screwing Up Your Health.” Cracked.com. N.p., 28 Jan. 2009. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. .

This satirical article reviews five ways in which video games have detrimental effects on a person’s health from modern science studies and constantly ridicules these scientific assumptions throughout the article. The effects found were: 1) Playing video games gives users lower self-esteem regarding body image. 2) Makes males have an increased heart rate variability. 3) Creates the possibility of being addicted to video games. 4) An increase in speech and communication problems. 5) Implementing social dysfunction by rewiring the brain. The over-sexualizing and featuring of extreme body types (over-muscular, masculine males and well-endowed females) was a large cause of body image issues. Another effect, the increase of heart rate variability can correlated to increased “stress, anger, and irrationality” which the author sarcastically terms “Male PMS.” The author mundanely dishevels the rest of the arguments made by these scientific studies. The article provides great insight to current health problems of gaming and how gamers perceive these “problems.”

Annotated by Johnny Truong

Steinberg, Scott. “Kids and Video Games: Health and Safety Issues.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 23 July 2012. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/scott-steinberg/video-games_b_1695116.html&gt;.

Here six of the most common concerns parents have about video games are addressed: amount of playtime, age-appropriateness, health and obesity, addiction, safety concerns, aggression. The author suggests that one to two hours of playtime is acceptable while adding or subtracting time based on reward and punishment. The article states that there is no established guideline to introduces a child to gaming and states as a child develops co-ordination and reading skill the scope of games available to them would increase. The article continues to offer common sense advice of balance and moderation to address health and addiction concerns. The article, interestingly enough, states that video games generally do not increase a propensity towards short term aggression. This article is incredibly opinionated and does not offer much scientific support. It could serve as exposing a writer to new ideas that would require more research to flesh out.

Annotated by Ethan Dyer

This source is basically an experiment or study that was posted on the internet for public use. To begin with, the experiment shows the benefits of being a leader in MMORPGs, in-game and out of the game. The method in the experiment went about running an “instance” (a dungeon type program) in the MMORPG World of Warcraft. Their findings overall showed that running through the instance with numerous players fostered and not hindered leadership development. This study is quite interesting in the fact that its methods included playing the game and figuring out results based on the fluidity of the party. Since our group was even considering a very similar study, it is even more interesting that this source provided a positive context to video games.

Annotated by Jin

Ferenstein, Greg. “How Social Gaming Is Improving Education.” Mashable. n.p., 7 Feb. 2010. Web. 19 Sept. 2012.

Many schools are “replacing textbook learning with social video games, and improving learning outcomes in the process” (Ferenstein). Technology is encouraging kids to get excited about learning again. A group of sixth graders from a school in New York City “learn georgriaphy from Google Earth, collaborate through an internal social networking platform, and present ideas through a podcast” (Ferenstein). One kid admits that his “least favorite part of the day is ‘dismissal'” (Ferenstein). Gaming and education can be beneficial in not only retaining information, but also increasing enthusiasm when it comes to school and learning, which one usually sees as a daunting task.

Annotated by Hannah

“Raise Smart Kid.” Raise Smart Kid. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2012. <http://www.raisesmartkid.com/3-to-6-years-old/4-articles/34-the-good-and-bad-effects-of-video-games&gt;.

After a long day at school, what is for better for a kid but to sit down to a rousing afternoon of video games? However, that is not the same for parents. Parents worry that all this intense game play is ruining their kids’ health, and causing many other possible problems for them. And with the over usage of games, there is many possible negative effects that can happen, as in making you kids antisocial, or even cause anger problems. But it does not limit to just that. There are many positive aspects of gaming, like improving hand eye coordination, or the ability to multitask.

Annotated by Tatyana Brown

This article gives the argument that video games are basically bad for children. This is a very common argument in the context of social media con arguments. This article introduces a very interesting term “pathological gamer”. In context the article says this about video games, “Once players became pathological gamers, their grades suffered, as did their relationships with their parents”. Other than the introduction of a couple interesting terms, this source is basically stating video games can cause disruptions in the common household. This article would probably be good to use in a small argument against the use of social media to children.

Annotated by Jin

“Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project.” Social Media and Young Adults. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2012. <http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Social-Media-and-Young-Adults.aspx&gt;.

This source is a report of a research project that was conducted by Pew Internet & American Life Project. In the start of the report, multiple statistics were shown (found through surveys). The aim/purpose of this research project was to find any correlations between the millennial generation and social media. Basically, throughout the middle of the huge paper, the author shows a lot of correlations and trends set between age groups between multiple factions of media. (For example: music/e-books, computers, gaming devices, online social networks) This source would be a perfect read to come up with new perspectives about social media becausethis source shows many possible trends between media and its audiences.

Annotated by Jin

Selections by Johnny Truong

Topic: Health culture linked to social media

MacMillan, Amanda. “Depression, ADHD Increase Teens’ Risk for Internet Addiction.” Health Magazine, 5 Oct. 2009. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <http://www.health.com/health/condition-article/0,,20310219_2,00.html>.

MacMillan states that children with ADHD and depression, and other social problems, are at greater risk of internet addiction. She underscores therapeutic effects of internet that attract these individuals make them more susceptible to addiction. MacMillan states “Internet addiction is not fully understood yet by the therapeutic by the therapeutic community.” MacMillan implies that there is a therapeutic role that the internet could play that might be worth investigating. According to the article the difference between therapy and addiction is moderation.

She writes that in this society abstaining from the internet is not a practical treatment plan for internet addicts. One medical doctor states “Our culture practically demands we spend time online” and therefore the role of parents should be to monitor usage. This article gives practical insight into rising health concerns introduced by new media.

Annotated by Ethan Dyer

Kim, Yeonsoo, Jin Young Park, Sung Byuk Kim, In-Kyung Jung, Yun Sook Lim, and Jung-Hyun Kim. “The Effects of Internet Addiction on the Lifestyle and Dietary Behavior of Korean Adolescents.” Nutrition Research and Practice 4.1 (2010): 51. Web.

Study done on Korean adolescents on internet addiction. South Korea is one of the biggest online gaming countries outside the U.S. and constantly known for it. A study was conducted on a 1000 adolescents from grades 7-9 that were living in Seoul, Korea. One-fifth of the surveyed students were diagnosed with “internet addiction” and were currently being treated for the disease. A questionnaire was then give, which measured whether a student was addicted or not (based on the KS Scale, a Korean modified version of an internet addiction scale.) Additional questionnaires that addressed the socioeconomic factors of students and also the diets of these Korean students were given. All three questionnaires from the students were analyzed statistically for any notable conclusions from the data. Overall, “high-risk internet users were found to eat smaller meals, have less of an appetite, skip meals, and snack more,” and the quality of the diet from high-risk users was very poor. Most high-risk users ate foods with high content in fats and simple sugars which suggests a very unbalanced diet. Along these lines, high-risk users drank and smoke more than any other class of internet users. The study acts a good example of the diminishing health of internet users due to social media use.

Annotated by Johnny Truong

Jang Hyun KimMin-Sun KimYoonjae, Nam. “An Analysis Of Self-Construals, Motivations, Facebook Use, And User Satisfaction.” International Journal Of Human-Computer Interaction 26.11/12 (2010): 1077-1099. Computer Source. Web. 25 Sept. 2012.

“This study proposes that the self-construal construct provides a good instrument for measuring the relationship between people’s understanding of self as a predictor of social computing (Facebook use) and satisfaction.” This is part of the abstract of the journal that surmises the entire source pretty well. This journal focuses on sort of a logical almost mathematical approach to establishing any trends between Social Networking Sites (SNS) and its users online. Of all the academic journals I’ve annotated, this source is interesting because it attempts to predict human qualities through the usage of theoretical models. Other journals do this of course, but this journal has a science-y tone to it, using unbiased eyes to test and gather data according to the study

Annotated by Jin

Title:Cultural difference in motivations for using social network sites: A comparative study of American and Korean college students

Source: Computers in human behavior [0747-5632] Kim, Yoojung yr:2011 iss:1 pg:3 -372

Comparing Korean and American college students on their motivations for using social media.

When it comes to social networking, each country has its own way of doing it. For many, it is the way that is used that is different, for some it is merely the way it is administered out to the public. In this study, they compare how college students from Korea and the United States differ in the usage of online site. Some of the main things that they focus on is the communication they undergo, the entertainment they seek, the information they search and thereafter. Due to the social expectations in Korea, you can definitely see a huge difference is how a college student in Korea spends his time on the internet in comparison to a college student in America.

Annotated by Tatyana Brown

Kuczynski-Brown, Alex. “School Drug Use: Survey Finds 17 Percent Of High School Students Drink, Smoke, Use Drugs During The School Day.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 23 Aug. 2012. Web. 23 Sept. 2012.

Correlation between social media and drug use by high school students A survey was conducted to gauge the level of drug/substance use from teens age 12-17. However, one of the major conclusions was how significant “digital peer pressure” was with increasing drug/substance usage among teenagers. 75% of teens responded that the pictures on Facebook of their friends using drugs or alcohol had encouraged themselves to imitate that behavior. In comparison to teenagers who did not use social media, “those who have are four times more likely to have used marijuana, and more than three likelier to have used alcohol.” The sources brings awareness that despite the networking prospects of social media, those networks can induce behavior especially in teens to use illegal substance or drink alcohol underage.

Annotated by Johnny Truong

Blaha, Craig. “Social Media Used to Sell Drugs to Youth.” Technorati Social Media. N.p., 29 Feb. 2012. Web. 25 Sept. 2012. <http://technorati.com/social-media/article/social-media-used-to-sell-drugs/&gt;.

International Narcotics Board (INCB) addresses the issue and advent of social media (YouTube and Facebook) for advertising websites which allow someone to purchase illegal drugs 5.) With the internet being able to touch almost all corners of the world, and the many people that use the internet, those who deal in the darker markets take advantage of the internet to market their products. One that is definitely causing a problem within the internet world is the selling of illegal pharmaceuticals to teenagers. The government has taken notice of this, and is doing all that it can to shut down these sights, but due to the fact that this is being casted on the interweb, it is hard to keep track of all the possible websites that might be selling the drugs.

Annotated by Tatyana Brown

Mann, Denise. “Social Networking Tied to Teen Drug, Alcohol Use.” WebMD. WebMD, 23 Aug. 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2012. <http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20110824/social-networking-tied-to-teen-drug-alcohol-risk&gt;.

WebMD cites the CASA (Columbia University’s National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse) survey which polled at least 2000 teens about social networking and its link to substance use.

Parents know that if you give a teenager an electronic device that has access to the internet, more than likely, they will go visit an online social site. However, what they do not know is that studies are showing that kids that do visit these sights have a high probability for using or drinking drugs or alcohol. Yet, it is not the fact that they are going onto these sites that are causing the problem, but in fact the simple act of seeing images or advertisements for it that is enticing the risky behavior. So it is time for parents to not only know the risks, but also come to understand what is really being advertised on these social networks..

Annotated by Tatyana Brown

Dolan, Pamela L. “FDA Issues First Social Media Rules for Drug Companies.” Amednews.com American Medical News. N.p., 25 Jan. 2012. Web. 23 Sept. 2012.

This article shows one approach how the government has created new regulations that guide the new interactions brought about by the emergence of social media. The articles states “many pharmaceutical companies shut down Facebook pages after Facebook stopped giving them the option to shut off public comments on those pages” and that this was due to concerns about being liable for the responses they would make. The new guidelines address this concern by calling on companies to respond to public requests by guiding individuals to an avenue of more private assistance. Dolan suggests that more specific guidance is needed before pharmaceutical manufacturers can feel comfortable getting back online again. This article is interesting and helpful as it shines light on new issues concerns and policies that must be created due as we enter a post-human society.

Annotated by Ethan Dyer

Luxton, I David D., June, Jennifer D., Fairall, Jonathan M. “Social Media And Suicide: A Public Health Perspective.” American Journal of Public Health 102.S2 (2012): S195-S200. Professional Development Collection. Web. 22 Sept. 2012.

This source illustrates how suicide and social media are becoming increasingly related. Research conducted has shown that “of 719 individuals aged 14 to 24 years, 79% reported being exposed to suicide related content through family, friends and traditional news media such as newspapers, and 59% found such content through Internet sources” (Luxton, June, Fairall, S196). Cyber bullying and cyber harassment continue to be a growing problem, and online forums make it easier for people to communicate and find out more about suicide and how to commit suicide. This source represents the detrimental effects the internet can have on one’s mental state, particularly youth.

Annotated by Hanna Basta

Maag, Christopher. “A Hoax Turned Fatal Draws Anger but No Charges.” The New York Times. n.p., 28 Nov. 2007. Web. 20 Sept. 2012.

This source shows how the Internet can not only be detrimental to one’s health, it can cause death. A childhood friend’s mother pretended to be a boy, Josh Evans, who liked Megan, a thirteen year old girl. Eventually, Josh went from “flirting…to mean” (Maag). The woman, Lori Drew, persuaded other girls to join in the bullying. It did not take long for the constant bullying to get to Megan, and she took her own life. Megan’s case is a clear example of the negative effects the internet can have on one’s mental state. In Megan’s case, it was her emotional well-being that was affected, and she became very depressed. This source correlates with the growing number of suicides related to technology. Hannah annotates this!

Annotated by Hannah Basta

Selections by Hannah Basta

Topic: How Technology influences Education, Politics and Law

Hilliard, Robert L. Media, Education, and America’s Counter-Culture Revolution: Lost and Found Opportunities for Media Impact on Education, Gender, Race, and the Arts. Westport: Ablex, 2001. Print.

This source discusses education’s “lost and found opportunities” during the 1960s and 1970s. Hilliard admits that just “because something is powerful and new doesn’t necessarily mean that it’s bad, unless we arbitrarily consider any change as bad” (Hilliard, 71). Of all the new technologies introduced during the twentieth century, the Internet, “television and radio are the most powerful forces in the world today for affecting the minds, emotions and, through them, the behavior of humankind” (Hilliard, 71). Thus, we see the positive influences of the media on our lives. However, I can counter that because these are the “most powerful forces,” according to Hilliard, and play the biggest role in affecting us, it really depends on how the media uses its power if we are to determine whether or not it is a positive influence they have on us.

Annotated by Hanna Basta

This book is a great piece to research through because of its variety of references to key events. In the first chapter, the book recognizes the complex yet vital role social media has in the world. “What these two modes of action have in common is their disturbance of comfortable notions of political process and ordered duration”. This chapter suggests that social media is a sort of revolution. It’s been a recent trend that social media has been accredited or on some cases instigated political uprisings, protests, etc. In my opinion, this book is a great start to look into the possible trends or events that go along with the book Netsmart. You won’t be able to start a revolution through media if you don’t know how to fully utilize media.

Annotated by Jin

http://diigo.com/0t712

This source covers a broad width of topics and so a few chapters may be unrelated to social media. The 3rd chapter, titled The Protest Paradigm and News, Coverage of the “Right to Party” Movement, covers an interesting event. According to this book, research on social protests shows a trend that news coverage has “a focus on the appearance and actions of the protesters rather than the issues they raise”. There are a few other social media paradigm characteristics that are listed on the same page. This is an interesting finding. I would use this and expand on the things that the news isn’t covering in many events. Perhaps events discussed in class have not been fully covered by the news and there is still key information missing that may change our perspectives.

Annotated by Jin

Czaja, Sara J., and Chin C. Lee. “The Internet and Older Adults: Design Challenges and Opportunties” Communication, Technology and Aging: Opportunities and Challenges for the Future. New York: Springer Pub., 2001. 62-63. Print.

This article summarizes the differences accessibility, usage and skill acquisition of technology between members of different generations. The author emphasizes that the internet is has tremendous utility for people over the age of 60 such as better communication with family members, immediate access to a plethora of health care information and in the future video conferencing with physicians. The crux of this passage however is to inform the reader about challenges older adults face when interacting with this new technology. The article points out reports “that although the usability of systems has improved substantially, current interfaces still exclude many people, such as people who are older.” The article goes in further detail to compare internet usage and skills with the younger generation. Studies show that older adults perform worse at computer tasks. This is a great contributing source for the comparing internet and technology usage of young versus older adults.

Annotated by Ethan Dyer

Tedesco, J. C. “Examining Internet Interactivity Effects on Young Adult Political Information Efficacy.” American Behavioral Scientist 50.9 (2007): 1183-194. Print.

This primary research article tests the effect of internet activity on potential voting behavior. This article was done prior to the 2008 general election and accurately predicted that the internet can be a powerful tool to increase voter participation among young adults. “Participants in the highly interactive condition were also significantly more likely than those in the low interactive condition to indicate that voting was an important behavior.” The article also found that the more interactive the conditions were the more significant the effect was on voter participation. This literary journal primary research paper adds powerful evidence to any paper evaluating the evolution of our political system.

Annotated by Ethan Dyer

Dominic Yeo, T.E. “Social-Media Early Adopters Don’t Count.” Journal Of Advertising Research 52.3 (2012): 291-308. Business Source Complete. Web. 23 Sept. 2012.

Social Media is really good for advertising. Discusses how it’s used for advertising purposes This academic study aims to explain social media participation of users because of self-interest or relational interest as this information can benefit advertisers. Additionally, the personality of consumers that social media advertisements target can be broken down into five attributes: “Big Five personality dimensions, motives, involvement, content preferences, and usage”. Big Five personality dimensions embody the types of traits that a person exhibits such as elemental, compound, situational, or surface traits. Motives are the reason(s) that a person uses social media either for academics, communication, and etc. Involvement is the level of participation a person has within social media, whether they contribute back to the community or are simply stand-still. Content preferences is how attractive certain ads or media are to the user. Lastly, usage is the amount of time spent doing certain activities on social media. The study utilized YouTube users for the basis of the study. In this source, a systemic study is conducted to explain why social media advertisements are effective and to show statistical evidence to explain the phenomenon.

Annotated by Johnny Truong

http://diigo.com/0t71s

Creative use of Social Media in the Revolutions of Tunisia, Egypt & Libya.

When Tunisia, Egypt and Libya began their revolution, they could have let the revolt stay within the countries, but they chose a more creative path to go down. Turning to the internet, the revolt quickly became nationwide, spreading like a positive virus to the far corners of the world, gaining the support of more than just their home lands, but all the lands that lay on the earth. Unlike many revolts in history, this revolt lasted for only a week, due to the immense digital participation overwhelming the governments. With this instantaneous ability to leak information, revolts have the possibility to gain stronger support worldwide, and have opened doors for the spread of information.

Annotated by Tatyana Brown

Nelson, Merrick. “Social Media And The Egyptian Revolution.” Peace Magazine 28.2 (2012): 19-22. Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 Sept. 2012.

This source explains the role of modern technology, particularly the Internet, in the Egyptian Revolution. It tells how one girl put a video up on her Facebook and how it went viral. The internet “allowed many individuals the opportunity to participate in the political and social movements and create change…Social media, including the internet, video conferencing, and even commerce, allowed for a disintegration of past cultural differences in order for individuals to work as a collective” (Nelson, 21). This source is the epitome of how the internet and technology today can have very positive effects on our society. One girl with one video was able to initiate a change that would affect her entire nation and spread awareness to the entire world.

Annotated by Hanna Basta

Palfrey, John. “Internet Arms Race.” Technology Review. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, May-June 2009. Web. 22 Sept. 2012

In this pre-Arab Spring 2009 article, Harvard Law professor, John Palfrey, briefly surveys worldwide implications of the use of the internet and more specifically, social media, in an attempt to assess its effect on Democracy. Palfrey asserts that in democratic states, social media has become integrated in politics and allows for increased public participation – “Community organizers used new technologies in Barack Obama’s 2008 election bid, which helped establish a benchmark for other campaigns.” – and for increased transparency – “In Kenya, the fact that bloggers are reporting publicly on debates in parliament for all the world to see gives politicians reason for pause before they speak and take action”. He continues to bring up interesting points of censorship across non-democratic countries, without much detail, suggesting that governments of these countries view mass participation in social media as a threat. Palfrey states that governments abuse mass media to spread propaganda. He concludes that Digital Technology are only vehicles and that the Internet as a whole has the ability to either hinder or help the spread of Democracy. This article is an excellent source for examples that may both support or counter a hypothesis. Since the information on each example surveyed is incredibly limited it may not be the most ideal document to cite for the body of the paper, but instead, it is a doorway to more opportunity. The writings may also inspire attractive introductions and conclusions to a paper.

Annotated by Ethan

http://www.ijbssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_6_Special_Issue_March_2012/31.pdf

Social Media’s Influence on Business-To-Business Sales Performance.

Once the world hit the digital revolution, the new age form of communication severely impacted our culture, due to the new forms of communication. Many products that were being produced drastically changed, affecting not only the way we communicate, but the way we run our lives. As the digital revolution took off, it also kick started the media revolution, making it more complicated than the ways they had back then. Things that once were printed are now available all over the internet. As both revolutions grew, they began to merge together, one becoming depended on the other, thus advancing our mass media.

Annotated by Tatyana Brown

Selections by Ethan Dyer

Topic: The Dark Side of Post-Human

“Chinese Online Gamer Dies after Three-day Session.” BBC News. BBC, 22 Feb. 2011. Web. 23 Sept. 2012.

A man in China died after a three day online game session in which the gamer had barely eaten or slept in the time frame. He collapsed within an internet café on the outskirts of Beijing and immediately rushed to a clinic but was unable to be resuscitated. Researchers believe that there millions of Chinese people, especially young adults and teenagers who “are addicted to internet gaming.” This death in China mirrors the deaths of other online gamers especially the case of a 28 year-old man in South Korea who died after playing online games for an entire 50 hour period. This source is excellent in supporting how online gaming and social media are adversely affecting the health of its users to the point of death. Those are who addicted continue to ignore their physical needs and limitations and possibly face consequences such as the young Chinese man within this article.

Annotated by Johnny Truong

Smahel, David, B. Bradford Brown, and Lukas Blinka. “Associations Between Online Friendship And Internet Addiction Among Adolescents And Emerging Adults.” Developmental Psychology 48.2 (2012): 381-388. PsycARTICLES. Web. 25 Sept. 2012.

effects between Internet addiction and approaches to friendship may be reciprocal: Being oriented toward having more online friends, preferring online communication, and spending more time online were related to increased risk of Internet addiction The growth of the internet is directly correlated to its users, and those who feed it information and data. It has become a useful tool to help us out with our everyday life, yet there are some who have taken it to a whole new extreme. Internet addiction is becoming prevalent within the teenage community, and has even looped over to their social life. Social cues are being lost, and just as much, social communication is changing drastically. Even the kinds of friendships have changed. Some do argue that this is fact is a good thing, so it provides a way for friendships to reach those who have a hard time creating them.

Annotated by Tatyana Brown

Negative effects of the internet on child development “Negative Effects of Internet Usage on Child Development.” Verdick.org. n.p., 2012. Web. 21 Sept. 2012.

This source discusses the negative effects the internet has on child development, particularly its impact on physical development, cognitive development, and social development. In terms of physical development, the “’hands on experience” is nonexistent, and “there is no evidence that virtual manipulation with generate the same intellectual skills and personal agency that come from physical manipulation” (Verdick.org). In terms of cognitive development, children have a hard time developing their crap-detection skills and are “unable to test reality in the virtual world” (Verdick.org). In regards to the internet’s impact on social development, there is concern in children falling prey to negative and hateful slander. This source clearly depicts the negative impact the internet can have on child development, which affects society.

Annotated by Hanna Basta

Bauerlein, Mark. The Dumbest Generation: How the Digital Age Stupefies Young Americans and Jeopardizes Our Future (or, Don’t Trust Anyone under 30). New York, NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2008. Print.

In this book Bauerlein takes an analytically approach to evaluate what effect the digital age is having on up and coming generations. The crux of his position is that although the digital provides a vehicle enhancing learning the ease and accessibility of the trivial material compounded with the vast plethora of distractions has, in fact, produced the opposite. This is book serves as the the arch nemesis to Howard Rheingold’s view of a digital utopia. He focuses on specific results of vasts studies that show that the material teens are consuming have little substance. One specific point that illustrates this is that students have been reading far less from sources with much rare or median words. He states “Print far exceeds live and televised speech, even to the point that a book by Dr. Seuss falls only slightly beneath the conversation of intelligent adults on the rare-word-per-thousand scale.

Annotated by Ethan Dyer

New York Times questions the effect of the internet on literacy skills Rich, Motoko. “Literacy Debate: Online, R U Really Reading?” The New York Times. n.p., 27 July 2008. Web. 22 Sept. 2012.

This article describes a fifteen year old girl named Nadia who is addicted to the internet. She spends at least six hours a day on the internet, surfing the web and participating in various sites. The article suggests that internet addiction is now common in young adults. Some think the internet is still harmful, “diminishing literacy, wrecking attention spans and destroying a precious common culture that exists only through the reading of books” (Rich). The article provides information to suggest individuals do not read much anymore because of their addictions; however, it describes Zachary Sims, an eighteen year old, “craves the ability to quickly find different points of view on a subject and converse with others online. Some children with dyslexia and other learning difficulties…have found it far more comfortable to search and read online” (Rich). This article provides a counterargument that the internet can still encourage reading.

Annotated by Hanna Basta

Cavaglion, G, and E Rashty. “Narratives Of Suffering Among Italian Female Partners Of Cybersex And Cyber-Porn Dependents.” Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity 17.4 (2010): 270-287. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 25 Sept. 2012.

This source is an academic journal that focuses down on a very specific audience. The research subjects are Italian men and women surfers. This journal includes within it a report on a study that focused on gathering data from collected support-groups. The conclusion or main argument in this journal is, “Cybersex and cyber-porn activity, mostly viewed by men, can be seen as a factor in a dysfunctional relationship that lacks mutual recognition and sharing.” What’s more interesting about this journal is that it provides a section of whether or not recovery is possible under the set of right conditions. This journal is perfect for those who want to narrow their research of social media into cyber-sexual content.

Annotated by Jin

Twitter and Facebook: Productivity or Distraction?” Social Media News, Strategy, Tools, and Techniques. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2012. <http://socialmediatoday.com/index.php?q=SMC/184383&gt;

The argument is strong on either side of the case: do social networks increase or decrease productivity on the job? The question stands: is twitter and facebook a distraction, or help increase productivity? This article takes that question, and narrows down to how it is affecting workers in the workplace. Not only that, but how it affects the security and virus protection within the workplace. Conducting various experiments within many workplaces, statistics show that facebook and twitter does in fact pose as a threat to office safety. However, one cannot just say that the online media is the only thing that is causing office distractions. There are many other things in the office that could cause possible distractions. Even still, there are some that believe that the online world actually helps the office worker, by inspiring creativity, and so much more. The definitive answer to this question will not be provided, for it is truly up to the reader to decide.

Annotated by Tatyana Brown

“Virtually Absent: Online Education and the Failure to Learn.” Virtually Absent: Online Education and the Failure to Learn – Doctor_rock – Open Salon. Open Salon, n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2012.

A teacher bitches about the problems from online teaching, short read An educator of an online course describes his experience with a virtual classroom. He explains that there was an emotional disconnect from his students which he was never able to see personally. He questions the motivations of students who take an online course and also teachers whom operate an online course. Ultimately, he feels students view school as a daily activity and to just “pay fees, get grade.” He speaks about the only personal interaction with his students were e-mail exchanges a week before final grades for the course were due. Students began divulging bizarre, personal stories (excuses) and even intended on bribing the educator for a good grade. The source shows the insight of social media effects on education by the educator himself. Many people view the virtual community as an efficient, convenient classroom, but they tend to disregard the personal and emotional investment lost in the process.

Annotated by Johnny Truong

Kuss, Daria, J., and Mark, D. Griffiths. “Excessive Online Social Networking: Can Adolescents Become Addicted To Facebook?.” Education & Health 29.4 (2011): 68-71. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 23 Sept. 2012.

The authors reviewed studies of social networking sites (SNSs) and their potential addictiveness to young adults. The usage of SNSs were analyzed and the negative consequences of usage as well. The authors proceeded to conclude by reviewing cases of addiction to SNSs. One notable gender difference in the usage of SNSs was that males seemed “to disclose more personal information on SNS sites relative to females.” According to surveys, 74% of Facebook users claimed that SNSs had some negative impact on their lives such as “procrastination, distraction, and poor time-management.” The empirical, addiction studies of SNSs were not robust enough to conclude the addictiveness of social media and that a small minority suffers from extreme addictive behavior. This is a great source to elaborate if there are any underlying health effects of prolong social media use.

Annotated by Johnny Truong

Reardon, Sara. “Social Revolution? It’s A Myth.” New Scientist 214.2859 (2012): 24. Academic Search Complete. Web. 23 Sept. 2012

the role of social networking sites, such as Twitter and Facebook, in aiding the uprisings has been overstated. The authors analyze whether revolution, specifically a prominent example, the Arab Spring, was caused from social media or accelerated by it. An analysis of articles and social media posts containing the key words “Egypt” and “Twitter” was used to establish social media’s role in the uprisings. The consensus was that social media did not play such a critical role that many acclaimed it had, and rather social media re-direction and its description of the events that occurred were more substantial. The reason attributed by Kathleen Carley of Carnegie Mellon University “was social influence, not social networking.” This source creates an alternative perspective that social media itself is not causal in the aspects of revolution but more so what users tend to do with social media. Additionally, it creates the idea that social media use is more important than social media itself.

Annotated by Jin

 

Selections by Jin

Topic:

  • Say no to cyber bullies! Qualman, Mary Alison. “Cyber Bullying Rises, but Social Media Fights Back.” Socialnomics. n.p. 15 May 2011. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. This article draws attention to cyber bullying, a problem on the rise. According to statistics, “77% of students have been bullied…19% of students ages 10-17 who are regular internet users have been involved in cyber bullying via social media and text messaging. Only 51% of preteens and 35% of teens reported the bullying to parents.” In the fight against cyber bullying, a Facebook app called Find Help has been created, and a new site called http://www.itgetsbetter.org has recently gained much acknowledgement. Cyber bullying is increasingly becoming a problem for society, however, this article sheds some positive light on the issue, portraying a society banning together to stop a problem through social media.

    Annotated by Hannah Basta

  • The main premise in this blog is shown to be “establishing an identity”. Hurt, Jeff. “Why People Join Social Networking Sites.” JeffHurtBlog. n.p. 5 Jan. 2011. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. This site discusses the reasons why people join social networking sites. The top three reasons people join are for personal identity, the connections that can be made, and for the community. Hurt explains that it is “important to remember that people join social networking sites to showcase their identity first, build relationships second and then belong to the community.” Often times in a professional environment, bosses wish for their employees to keep their identities “under a psychosomatic lock-and-key.” This article mainly points out that the “power has shifted” from the “institutions to networks” and humans. The people are taking charge once more, and it is affecting their lives because they are breaking down previous set boundaries and creating new ones.

    Annotated by Hannah Basta

  • This link is an audience friendly kind of article. Basically I added this because youtube is an enormous part of social media. It’s basically the culmination of all the pros and cons of media into one site. When youtube hit the internet, it gave way for millions around the world to share their talents with the world instantaneously. Some, like the top five video hits that this article mentions, have launched these people into the record books: a fame they will never lose, as long as the internet world stays strong. Even though youtube helped the millions sitting behind their computer, due to the fact that youtube was available for anyone and everyone, youtube lost money. So to get money, youtube devised many different tactics to still rake in the revenues. And just as much, it gave a way for those to make revenue, without even having to leave their computer.

    Annotated by Tatyana

  • Annotated by Ethan Dyer

  • Stenzel, Pam, and Melissa Nesdahl. Who’s in Your Social Network?: Understanding the Risks Associated with Modern Media and Social Networking and How It Can Impact Your Character and Relationships. Ventura, CA: Regal, 2011. Print.

    This book, published by Gospel Light Publications, aims to give guidance to teens and pre-teens on maneuvering through new media. The rhetoric is informative and the book is arranged in a mock blog post with conversational responses from a small sample of teens. The author converses a range of new media topics such as face book, new media pornography and sexting. Although laden in Sunday school advice the article does cite many independent studies to highlight just how engaged teens are in gorging themselves in the atrocities that new media facilitates. An example given by the author is “39% of all teen are sending or posting sexually suggestive messages.” Whether you are a pious, heathen or neutral this article does offer the reader lots of great ideas and additional reading crucial to a proper evaluation of the effects of social media on teens.

    Annotated by Ethan Dyer

  •  This source starts out by quoting another source that argues , “But it seems inarguable to me that no good can come of pornography”. There are a lot of outside references in this blog that includes trends leading to the conclusion, more exposure to pornography may in fact decrease sexual crimes. This conclusion is eased in after the introduction to a couple studies conducted by college professors on violence in movies and video games. The conclusion of these studies showed that, “two hours at the movies means two hours of drinking Coke instead of beer, with sobering effects that persist right on through till morning.” Of course this blog isn’t supported by any academic university or anything like that, but researching the studies introduced in this blog would be a good start to arguing against certain features of social media. Show that even the dirtiest parts of social media can contribute to society.

    Annotated by Jin

  • Porn stars use Twitter to go mainstream

This article is in a word, innovative. Basically, porn stars are now embracing social media in order to expand their fan base. It just astounds me because media is being incorporated into society in ways I would never have even dreamed of. An interesting point that comes out here is that porn stars are now relating and connecting with their fans on more of a personal level (not the dirty way). A scholar studying the porn industry stated this, “One of the things that comes with social media is the deconstruction of stereotype.” I would use this article to relate back to other people such as idols, celebrities, famous people that seem so far away can relate to back to their audience through the usage of social media.

Annotated by Jin

Davidson, Julia C., and Petter Gottschalk. Internet Child Abuse : Current Research And Policy / Edited By Julia Davidson And Petter Gottschalk. n.p.: Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, N.Y. : Routledge, 2011., 2011. GEORGIA STATE UNIV’s Catalog. Web. 23 Sept. 2012.

The authors, Davidson and Gottschalk, explain how poor regulation and monitoring of children who use the internet is equivalent to child abuse. They elaborate on how certain social media sites especially are known for leading children astray into adult internet chat rooms and solicit young children into sexual activities and of course, watching pornography. They then explain that the anonymity associated with virtual users enables anyone to play out fantasies or imagine themselves differently. The lack of trust and security when interacting in a virtual community is that much more dangerous due to this uncertainty. This source takes a strong stance on how hazardous internet usage is for improperly educated children. It acts as a great extreme as to the linked health effects of social media on children.

Annotated by Johnny Truong

Additional Relevant Sources

Two videos about gaming.

 

  • Designing Problem-Drive Instruction w/ Online Social Media- Hannah’s source

With the quickly advancing world of online media, it is imperative for teachers to be able to comprehend the new world, and be able to operate through it. Dispelling all possible negative thoughts, this book systematically and sophisticatedly provides ways to not only move through these sites, but to use them as a teacher’s aid. Referencing to the new age’s hottest social media sites, the book elaborates upon Facebook and Twitter, and how not only is it important that teachers understand these fully for what they are, but to be able to manipulate them in ways to where it challenges their students to use these sites differently than what they most expected.

Book Annotated by Tatyana Brown

 

Research Proposals

Technology today has impacted schools and the education system in new ways, completely transforming it from when it first began. I propose a way to test which type of teaching/learning method is more efficient, online learning or the classic classroom environment. For a whole semester, we can take two classes, learning the exact same material and test them at the end of the semester over the exact same thing with the exact same answers. One class will learn strictly online and take an online test, while the other will learn in the classroom without any technology and take a test with pen and paper. At the end we can see which type of learning and teaching worked best for both students and teachers, and how those results could affect our educational system.

Social media has become a universal way for friends, acquaintances, or even strangers to delve into a sliver of a user’s personal life and participate almost as if they were in the experience themselves.  In this manner, social media is also influential on the these observers, who view amongst the funny pictures and family albums, can also potentially see more explicit activities such as underage drinking and the use of illegal drugs and substances by other users.  Social media has become an outlet for describing daily activities entailing those which are not considered to be very wholesome and probably repulsive or illegal by society.  The constant influence these activities have are only accentuated by Facebook and MySpace, where users are able to see wild parties, people using illegal substances, and/or people performing lewd acts.  This internet culture is contagious to outside or inside viewers and this behavior is more than admired, but actually imitated.  I propose that the correlation between social media and drug use should be explored more by monitoring young adults or students (ages less than 21 years old) who use social media frequently and those who stop/restrict themselves from using social media.  I believe the study will show that those who have stopped using social media so often will experience less illegal drug/substance use as the constant digital peer pressures and temptations from social media are eliminated.

One point I found irksome in Howard Rheingold’s book was the assertion that people who play an online game such as World of Warcraft. I am a strong proponent of the position that the internet is merely a tool may be used for good or evil depending of the person using the tool. I will however submit to the argument that social mass media has the propensity to be more likely to democratic. My position on World of Warcraft is that is a virtual community. Much like tangible communities there are leadership roles that individuals can undertake and perhaps increase their leadership skills. However, the leadership roles are few compared to overall population. I would like to propose a test to evaluate an individuals leadership score before and after playing World of Warcraft to properly assess Rheingold’s position.

To be quite frank, school can be that of a drag. We are required to sit through hours upon hours of lectures, speeches, elaboration, whatever name have you, and have information shoved down our throats. Just as much, after years of being force fed all this information, we are expected to go into the real world and regurgitate everything that we have learned, and make a decent living. Monotony is prominent, creativity to die. However, there is a select few that know that it doesn’t end there. Why not run through a world where you are going on quests, slashing and vanquishing foes that stand in the way of your true power, letting how you conquer your problems be entirely up to your creativity, and fast finger skills? Gamers stand tall and proud over the many hours they have divulged into online or console based games, and continue to do so over the years. Some have even taken it to a whole new level, and have become paid pros at the game of their choice. So raises the question, is this just a waste of time, or the creative man’s job possibility? If time permitted, I would enjoy to divulge on this theory by comparing “work hours” of an master’s degree office worker and a gamer pro, their wages, social life, and emotional charts to prove whether or not the spoon-fed life is really all it’s cracked up to be.